Grouting is a construction process by means of which the highly erratic permeability and deformability of foundation rock and soil are homogenized. The main parameter governing the design and construction of grouting works is the permeability of the rock or soil, which is established by means of field permeability tests. This book assembles information on rock and soil grouting from various sources, together with the author's personal experience on several grouting projects. Some aspects of permeability testing of rock and soils are elaborated, and the use of theoretical ground water percolation studies for clarification of design options for grout curtains are presented. The results achieved by grouting are presented and analysed on examples of constructed grouting works (curtains, tunnels, foundations, lifting of structures). Particulars of the performance of the permeability tests and their evaluation are studied in some detail, since they can very much distort the results obtained, and thus lead to erroneous design assumptions.
1. Introduction. 2. Properties of Soils and Rocks. Geology of site. Percolation of underground water and permeability of foundations. Field measurement of permeability. 3. Grouting Suspensions, Solutions and Resins. Suspensions. Material for suspensions. Properties of grout suspensions. Physical properties of injected grouts. Solutions and resins. 4. Grouting Technology. Grouting compounds. The grouting pressure. The injection process. Grouting alluvial deposits. 5. Drilling and Injection Plant and Equipment. Drilling machinery and accessories. Batching and mixing equipment. Injection pumps. Injection lines and accessories. Recording instruments. The grouting plant. 6. The Grout Curtain. Seepage through the dam foundation. Design parameters for grout curtains. Injection of grout curtain to required permeability standard. Technical specifications for curtain grouting. Observation of grout curtain performance. Examples of grout curtains. Parameters of various grout curtains. 7. Contact and Consolidation Grouting. Scope of application of consolidation and contact grouting. Contact grouting. Consolidation grouting. Case records of consolidation grouting. 8. Prestressing of Rock and Lining of Pressure Tunnels by Grouting. Rock anchors. Tunnel lining prestressed by grouting. 9. Lifting and Levelling of Structures by Grouting. Theoretical background. Grouting compounds. Grouting procedures for compaction grouting. Examples of the lifting and levelling of buildings. 10. Symbols. 11. Bibliography. 12. Glossary and Index.