Rock dynamics has become one of the most important topics in the field of rock mechanics and rock engineering. The spectrum of rock dynamics is very wide and it includes the failure of rocks, rock masses and rock engineering structures such as rockbursting, spalling, popping, collapse, toppling, sliding, blasting, non-destructive testing, geophysical explorations, science and engineering of rocks and impacts. The book specifically covers fundamentals of rock dynamics, constitutive models, numerical analysis techniques, dynamic testing procedures, the multi-parameter responses and motions of rocks during fracturing or slippage in laboratory experiments, earthquakes and their strong motion characteristics and their effect on various rock structures such as foundations, underground structures, slopes, dynamic simulation of loading and excavation, blasting and its positive utilization in rock engineering, the phenomenon of rockburst in rock excavations, non-destructive testing of rockbolts and rock anchors and impacts by meteors or projectiles. The main goal of this book is to present a unified and complete treatise on Rock Dynamics and to represent a milestone in advancing the knowledge in this field and in leading to new techniques for experiments, analytical and numerical modelling as well as monitoring of dynamics of rocks and rock engineering structures.
1 Introduction 2 Fundamental equations, constitutive laws and numerical methods 2.1 Fundamental equations 2.2 Constitutive laws for rocks 2.3 Constitutive modeling of discontinuities 2.4 Characterization and constitutive modeling of rock mass 2.5 Numerical methods 3 Tests on dynamic responses of rocks and rock masses 3.1 Dynamic uniaxial compression, Brazilian, triaxial (Hopkinson bar) test 3.2 Cyclic uniaxial compression, triaxial compression and shear tests 3.3 Conclusions 4 Multi-parameter responses and strong motions induced by fracturing of geomaterials and slippage of discontinuities and faulting model tests 4.1 Multi-parameter responses and strong motions induced by fracturing of rocks 4.2 Strong motions induced in stick-slip tests 4.3 Strong motions induced in model faulting experiments 5 Ground motions due to earthquakes and estimation procedures 5.1 Characteristics of earthquake faults 5.2 Observations on strong motions and permanent deformations 5.3 Strong motion estimations 5.4 Estimation of permanent surface deformation 6 Dynamic responses and stability of rock foundations 6.1 Model experiments on foundations 6.2 Observations of damage to foundations by earthquakes 6.3 Analytical and numerical studies on rock foundations 7 Dynamic responses and stability of underground excavations in rock 7.1 Ground motions in underground structures 7.2 Model experiments on shallow underground openings 7.3 Tunnels 7.4 Observations on abandoned mines and quarries 7.5 Underground powerhouses 7.6 Empirical approaches 7.7 Limiting equilibrium methods 7.8 Numerical methods 8 Dynamic responses and stability of rock slopes 8.1 Model tests 8.2 Observations and case histories 8.3 Effects of tsunamis on rock slopes 8.4 Empirical approaches for dynamic slope stability assessment 8.5 Limiting equilibrium approaches 8.6 Numerical methods 8.7 Estimations of post failure motions of slopes 9 Dynamic responses and stability of historical structures and monuments 9.1 Observations 9.2 Model experiments on masonry structures 9.3 Limit equilibrium approaches 9.4 Numerical methods 9.5 Monitoring at Nakagusuku Castle 10 Dynamics of loading and excavation in rocks 10.1 Dynamics of loading 10.2 Dynamics of excavations 11 Blasting 11.1 Background 11.2 Blasting agents 11.3 Measurement of blasting vibrations in open-pit mines and quarries 11.4 Measurements at underground openings 11.5 Multi-parameter monitoring during blasting 11.6 The positive and negative effects of blasting 12 Dynamics of rockburst and possible countermeasures 12.1 Mechanics of rockbursts 12.2 Stress changes in the vicinity of tunnel face 12.3 Examples of rockbursts 12.4 Laboratory tests on rockburst phenomenon 12.5 Prediction of rockburst potential 12.6 Monitoring of rockburst 12.7 Countermeasures against rockburst 12.8 Conclusions 13 Dynamics of rockbolts and rock anchors and their non-destructive testing 13.1 Turbine-induced vibrations in an underground power house 13.2 Dynamic behaviour of rockbolts and rock anchors subjected to shaking 13.3 Non-destructive testing for soundness evaluation 13.4 Estimation of failure time of tendons 13.5 Effect of degradation of support system 13.6 Conclusions 14 Dynamics of Impacts 14.1 Crater formation by meteorites and its environmental effects 14.2 Crater formation by projectiles in rocks 14.3 Monitoring of vibrations caused by meteorites 14.4 Free-fall (drop) experiments 14.5 Impact of slope failures 14.6 Formulation of impactor penetration and its applications 14.7 Water surface changes due to impactors 15 Conclusions